Sections

Views


Overview

Views represent the user interface of your application. Views are often HTML files with embedded PHP code that perform tasks related solely to the presentation of the data. Views format the content that you need to send back to the user/web browser that initiated the request.

Phalcon\Mvc\View and Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple are responsible for the managing the view layer of your MVC application.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function viewAction($invoiceId)
    {
        $this->view->invoiceId = $invoiceId;
    }
}

Constants

There are several constants that control the behavior of the rendering process once set in the view

Constant Description
LEVEL_ACTION_VIEW Render Level: To the action view
LEVEL_BEFORE_TEMPLATE Render Level: To the templates “before”
LEVEL_LAYOUT Render Level: To the controller layout
LEVEL_MAIN_LAYOUT Render Level: To the main layout
LEVEL_NO_RENDER Render Level: No render any view
LEVEL_AFTER_TEMPLATE Render Level: Render to the templates “after”

Methods

public function __construct(array options = [])

Phalcon\Mvc\View constructor

public function __get(string $key): mixed | null

Magic method to retrieve a variable passed to the view

echo $this->view->invoices;
public function __isset(string $key): bool

Magic method to retrieve if a variable is set in the view

echo isset($this->view->invoices);
public function __set(string $key, var value)

Magic method to pass variables to the views

$this->view->invoices = $invoices;
public function cleanTemplateAfter(): View

Resets any template before layouts

public function cleanTemplateBefore(): View

Resets any “template before” layouts

public function disableLevel(var level): ViewInterface

Disables a specific level of rendering

$this->view->disableLevel(
    View::LEVEL_ACTION_VIEW
);

Render all levels except ACTION level

public function disable(): View

Disables the auto-rendering process

public function enable(): View

Enables the auto-rendering process

public function exists(string $view): bool

Checks whether view exists

public function finish(): View

Finishes the render process by stopping the output buffering

public function getActionName(): string

Gets the name of the action rendered

public function getActiveRenderPath(): string | array

Returns the path (or paths) of the views that are currently rendered

public function getBasePath(): string

Gets base path

public function getContent(): string

Returns output from another view stage

public function getControllerName(): string

Gets the name of the controller rendered

public function getLayout(): string

Returns the name of the main view

public function getLayoutsDir(): string

Gets the current layouts sub-directory

public function getMainView(): string

Returns the name of the main view

public function getParamsToView(): array

Returns parameters to views

public function getPartial(
    string $partialPath, 
    mixed $params = null
): string

Renders a partial view

echo $this->getPartial("shared/footer");

Retrieve the contents of a partial

echo $this->getPartial(
    "shared/footer",
    [
        "content" => $html,
    ]
);

Retrieve the contents of a partial with arguments

public function getPartialsDir(): string

Gets the current partials sub-directory

public function getRender(
    string $controllerName, 
    string $actionName, 
    array $params = [], 
    mixed configCallback = null
): string

Perform the automatic rendering returning the output as a string

$template = $this->view->getRender(
    "invoices",
    "show",
    [
        "invoices" => $invoices,
    ]
);
public function getVar(string $key)

Returns a parameter previously set in the view

public function getViewsDir(): string | array

Gets views directory

protected function getViewsDirs(): array

Gets views directories

public function isDisabled(): bool

Whether automatic rendering is enabled

public function partial(
    string $partialPath, 
    mixed $params = null
)

Renders a partial view

$this->partial("shared/footer");

Show a partial inside another view

$this->partial(
    "shared/footer",
    [
        "content" => $html,
    ]
);

Show a partial inside another view with parameters

public function pick(var renderView): View

Choose a different view to render instead of last-controller/last-action

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;

class ProductsController extends Controller
{
    public function saveAction()
    {
        // ...

        $this->view->pick("invoices/list");
    }
}
public function registerEngines(
    array $engines
): View

Register templating engines

$this->view->registerEngines(
    [
        ".phtml" => \Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Php::class,
        ".volt"  => \Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Volt::class,
        ".mhtml" => \MyCustomEngine::class,
    ]
);
public function render(
    string $controllerName,
    string $actionName,
    array $params = []
): View | bool

Executes render process from dispatching data

$view
    ->start()
    ->render("posts", "recent")
    ->finish()
;

Shows recent posts view (app/views/posts/recent.phtml)

public function reset(): View

Resets the view component to its factory default values

public function setBasePath(
    string $basePath
): View

Sets base path. Depending of your platform, always add a trailing slash or backslash

$view->setBasePath(__DIR__ . "/");
public function setContent(
    string $content
): View

Externally sets the view content

$this->view->setContent(
    "<h1>hello</h1>"
);
public function setLayout(
    string $layout
): View

Change the layout to be used instead of using the name of the latest controller name

$this->view->setLayout("main");
public function setLayoutsDir(
    string $layoutsDir
): View

Sets the layouts subdirectory. It must be a directory under the views directory. Depending of your platform, always add a trailing slash or backslash

$view->setLayoutsDir(
    "../common/layouts/"
);
public function setMainView(
    string viewPath
): View

Sets default view name. Must be a file without extension in the views directory

$this->view->setMainView("base");

Renders as main view views-dir/base.phtml

public function setPartialsDir(
    string $partialsDir
): View

Sets a partials sub-directory. Must be a directory under the views directory. Depending of your platform, always add a trailing slash or backslash

$view->setPartialsDir(
    "../common/partials/"
);
public function setParamToView(
    string $key, 
    mixed $value
): View

Adds parameters to views (alias of setVar)

$this
    ->view
    ->setParamToView("invoices", $invoices)
;
public function setRenderLevel(
    int $level
): ViewInterface

Sets the render level for the view

$this->view->setRenderLevel(
    View::LEVEL_LAYOUT
);

Render the view related to the controller only

public function setTemplateAfter(
    mixed $templateAfter
): View

Sets a “template after” controller layout

public function setTemplateBefore(
    mixed $templateBefore
): View

Sets a template before the controller layout

public function setVar(
    string $key, 
    mixed $value
): View

Set a single view parameter

$this
    ->view
    ->setVar("invoices", $invoices)
;
public function setVars(
    array $params, 
    bool $merge = true
): View

Set all the render params

$this->view->setVars(
    [
        "invoices" => $invoices,
    ]
);
public function setViewsDir(
    mixed $viewsDir
): View

Sets the views directory. Depending of your platform, always add a trailing slash or backslash

public function start(): View

Starts rendering process enabling the output buffering

public function toString(
    string $controllerName,
    string $actionName,
    array params = []
): string

Renders the view and returns it as a string

Activation

You must register the view component in your DI container to enable views in your application.

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Di\DiInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\ViewBaseInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Volt;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();

        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        return $view;
    }
);

If no engine is defined, the Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Php will be automatically registered for you. These are files that contain both PHP and HTML code and have the extension .phtml. For more information regarding the Volt template engine, please check the relevant document.

Views in Controllers

Phalcon automatically passes the execution to the view component as soon as a particular controller has completed its cycle. The view component will look in the views folder for a folder named as the same name of the last controller executed and then for a file named as the last action executed. For instance, if a request is made to the URL https://dev.phalcon.ld/admin/invoices/view/12345, Phalcon will parse the URL as follows:

Server Address 127.0.0.1
Phalcon Directory admin
Controller invoices
Action view
Parameter 12345

The dispatcher will look for a InvoicesController and its action viewAction. A simple controller file for this example:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function viewAction($invoiceId)
    {
        $this->view->setVar('invoiceId', $invoiceId);
    }
}

The setVar() method allows us to create view variables on demand so that they can be used in the view template. The example above demonstrates how to pass the $invoiceId parameter to the respective view template.

Hierarchical Rendering

Phalcon\Mvc\View is the default component for rendering views in Phalcon and supports a hierarchy of files. This hierarchy allows for common layout points (commonly used views), as well as controller named folders defining respective view templates.

The default rendering engine for the view component is PHP. As a result all view related files need to have the .phtml extension. For the above example:

https://dev.phalcon.ld/admin/invoices/view/12345

Assuming that the views directory is app/views, the view component will find automatically the following 3 view files:

Name File Description
Action View app/views/invoices/view.phtml Action related view. It only will be rendered when the view action is executed.
Controller Layout app/views/layouts/invoices.phtml Controller related view. It will be rendered for every action executed in the InvoicesController.
Main Layout app/views/index.phtml Application related view. It shows on every controller/action of the application

You are not required to implement all of the files mentioned above. Phalcon\Mvc\View will simply move to the next view level in the hierarchy of files. If all three view files are implemented, they will be processed as follows:

<!-- app/views/invoices/view.phtml -->

<h3>View Name: "view"</h3>

<p>I have received the parameter <?php echo $invoiceId; ?></p>
<!-- app/views/layouts/invoices.phtml -->

<h2>Controller view: "invoices"</h2>

<?php echo $this->getContent(); ?>
<!-- app/views/index.phtml -->
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Example</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Main layout!</h1>

        <?php echo $this->getContent(); ?>

    </body>
</html>

NOTE: The call to $this->getContent() instructs Phalcon\Mvc\View on where to inject the contents of the previous view executed in the hierarchy.

For the example above, the output will be:

The generated HTML will be:

<html>
    <head>
        <title>Example</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Main layout!</h1>

        <!-- app/views/layouts/invoices.phtml -->

        <h2>Controller view: "invoices"</h2>

        <!-- app/views/invoices/view.phtml -->

        <h3>View Name: "view"</h3>

        <p>I have received the parameter 12345</p>

    </body>
</html>

Templates

Templates are views that can be used to share common view code. They act as controller layouts, so you need to place them in the layouts directory.

Templates can be rendered before the layout (using $this->view->setTemplateBefore()) or they can be rendered after the layout (using this->view->setTemplateAfter()). In the following example the template (layouts/common.phtml) is rendered after the main layout (layouts/posts.phtml):

<?php

use Phalcon\Flash\Direct;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property Direct $flash
 * @property View   $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function initialize()
    {
        $this->view->setTemplateAfter('common');
    }

    public function lastAction()
    {
        $this->flash->notice(
            'These are the latest invoices'
        );
    }
}
<!-- app/views/index.phtml -->
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Invoices</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <?php echo $this->getContent(); ?>
    </body>
</html>
<!-- app/views/layouts/common.phtml -->

<ul class='menu'>
    <li><a href='/'>Home</a></li>
    <li><a href='/list'>List</a></li>
    <li><a href='/support'>Support</a></li>
</ul>

<div class='content'>
    <?php echo $this->getContent(); ?>
</div>
<!-- app/views/layouts/invoices.phtml -->

<h1>Invoices</h1>

<?php echo $this->getContent(); ?>
<!-- app/views/invoices/last.phtml -->

<article>
    <h2>This is a title</h2>
    <p>This is Invoice One</p>
</article>

<article>
    <h2>Another title</h2>
    <p>This is Invoice Two</p>
</article>

The final output will be the following:

<!-- app/views/index.phtml -->
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Invoices</title>
    </head>
    <body>

        <!-- app/views/layouts/common.phtml -->

        <ul class='menu'>
            <li><a href='/'>Home</a></li>
            <li><a href='/list'>List</a></li>
            <li><a href='/support'>Support</a></li>
        </ul>

        <div class='content'>

            <!-- app/views/layouts/invoices.phtml -->

            <h1>Invoices</h1>

            <!-- app/views/invoices/last.phtml -->

            <article>
                <h2>This is a title</h2>
                <p>This is Invoice One</p>
            </article>

            <article>
                <h2>Another title</h2>
                <p>This is Invoice Two</p>
            </article>

        </div>

    </body>
</html>

If we had used $this->view->setTemplateBefore('common'), this would be the final output:

<!-- app/views/index.phtml -->
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Blog's title</title>
    </head>
    <body>

        <!-- app/views/layouts/invoices.phtml -->

        <h1>Blog Title</h1>

        <!-- app/views/layouts/common.phtml -->

        <ul class='menu'>
            <li><a href='/'>Home</a></li>
            <li><a href='/articles'>Articles</a></li>
            <li><a href='/contact'>Contact us</a></li>
        </ul>

        <div class='content'>

            <!-- app/views/invoices/last.phtml -->

            <article>
                <h2>This is a title</h2>
                <p>This is the post content</p>
            </article>

            <article>
                <h2>This is another title</h2>
                <p>This is another post content</p>
            </article>

        </div>

    </body>
</html>

Render Levels

As seen above, Phalcon\Mvc\View supports a view hierarchy. You might need to control the level of rendering produced by the view component. The method Phalcon\Mvc\View::setRenderLevel() offers this functionality.

This method can be invoked from the controller or from a superior view layer to interfere with the rendering process.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View   $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function findAction()
    {
        $this->view->setRenderLevel(
            View::LEVEL_NO_RENDER
        );

        // ...
    }

    public function viewAction($invoiceId)
    {
        $this->view->setRenderLevel(
            View::LEVEL_ACTION_VIEW
        );
    }
}

The available render levels are:

Class Constant Description Order
LEVEL_NO_RENDER Indicates to avoid generating any kind of presentation.  
LEVEL_ACTION_VIEW Generates the presentation to the view associated to the action. 1
LEVEL_BEFORE_TEMPLATE Generates presentation templates prior to the controller layout. 2
LEVEL_LAYOUT Generates the presentation to the controller layout. 3
LEVEL_AFTER_TEMPLATE Generates the presentation to the templates after the controller layout. 4
LEVEL_MAIN_LAYOUT Generates the presentation to the main layout. File views/index.phtml 5

Disabling Render Levels

You can permanently or temporarily disable render levels. A level could be permanently disabled if it isn’t used at all in the whole application:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();

        // Disable several levels
        $view->disableLevel(
            [
                View::LEVEL_LAYOUT      => true,
                View::LEVEL_MAIN_LAYOUT => true,
            ]
        );

        return $view;
    },
    true
);

Or disable temporarily in some part of the application:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View   $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function findAction()
    {
        $this->view->disableLevel(
            View::LEVEL_MAIN_LAYOUT
        );
    }
}

Disabling the View

If your controller does not produce any output for the view (or not even have one) you may disable the view component avoiding unnecessary processing:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View   $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function processAction()
    {
        $this->view->disable();
    }
}

Alternatively, you can return false to produce the same effect:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View   $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function processAction()
    {
        return false;
    }
}

You can return a response object to avoid disable the view manually:

<?php

use Phalcon\Http\Response;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property Response $response
 * @property View     $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function processAction()
    {
        return $this
            ->response
            ->redirect('index/index')
        ;
    }
}

Simple Rendering

Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple is an alternative component to Phalcon\Mvc\View. It keeps most of the philosophy of Phalcon\Mvc\View but lacks of a hierarchy of files which is, in fact, the main feature of its counterpart.

This component allows you to have control of when a view is rendered and its location. In addition, this component can leverage of view inheritance available in template engines such as Volt and others.

The default component must be replaced in the service container:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple;

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new Simple();

        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        return $view;
    },
    true
);

Automatic rendering must be disabled in Phalcon\Mvc\Application (if needed):

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;

try {
    $container   = new FactoryDefault();
    $application = new Application($container);

    $application->useImplicitView(false);

    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

To render a view it is necessary to call the render method explicitly indicating the relative path to the view you want to display:

<?php

use Phalcon\Http\Response;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property Response $response
 * @property View     $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{

    public function indexAction()
    {
        // 'views-dir/index.phtml'
        echo $this->view->render('index');

        // 'views-dir/posts/show.phtml'
        echo $this->view->render('posts/show');

        // 'views-dir/index.phtml' passing variables
        echo $this->view->render(
            'index',
            [
                'posts' => Invoices::find(),
            ]
        );

        // 'views-dir/invoices/view.phtml' passing variables
        echo $this->view->render(
            'invoices/view',
            [
                'posts' => Invoices::find(),
            ]
        );
    }
}

This is different to the render that Phalcon\Mvc\View implementation, which uses controllers and actions as parameters:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple;

$params = [
    'invoices' => Invoices::find(),
];

// Phalcon\Mvc\View
$view = new View();
echo $view->render('invoices', 'view', $params);

// Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple
$simpleView = new Simple();
echo $simpleView->render('invoices/view', $params);

Picking Views

As mentioned above, when Phalcon\Mvc\View is managed by Phalcon\Mvc\Application, the view rendered is the one related with the last controller and action executed. You could override this by using the pick() method:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property Response $response
 * @property View     $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function listAction()
    {
        // Pick 'views-dir/invoices/search' as view to render
        $this->view->pick('invoices/search');

        // Pick 'views-dir/invoices/list' as view to render
        $this->view->pick(
            [
                'invoices',
            ]
        );

        // Pick 'views-dir/invoices/search' as view to render
        $this->view->pick(
            [
                1 => 'search',
            ]
        );
    }
}

Partials

Partial templates are another way of breaking the rendering process into simpler more manageable chunks that can be reused by different parts of the application. With a partial, you can move the code for rendering a particular piece of a response to its own file.

One way to use partials is to treat them as HTML fragments that can be injected wherever needed with any necessary parameters:

<div class='top'>
    <?php $this->partial('shared/ad_banner'); ?>
</div>

<div class='content'>
    <h1>Invoices</h1>

    <p>Check out our specials!</p>
    ...
</div>

<div class='footer'>
    <?php $this->partial('shared/footer'); ?>
</div>

The partial() method does accept a second parameter as an array of variables/parameters that only will exists in the scope of the partial:

<?php 
    $this->partial(
        'shared/ad_banner', 
        [
            'id'   => $site->id, 
            'size' => 'big'
        ]
    ); 
?>

Values

Phalcon\Mvc\View is available in each controller using the view variable ($this->view). You can use that object to set variables directly to the view from a controller action by using the setVar() method.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\Controller;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

/**
 * @property View $view
 */
class InvoicesController extends Controller
{
    public function viewAction($invoiceId)
    {
        $invoice = Invoices::findFirst(
            [
                'conditions' => 'inv_id = :id:',
                'bind'       => [
                    'id' => abs(intval($invoiceId)),
                ]
            ]
        );
        $customer = $invoice->getRelated('customer');

        $this->view->setVar('invoice', $invoice);

        $this->view->customerId = $customer->cst_id;

        $this->view->setVars(
            [
                'name_first' => $customer->name_first,
                'name_last'  => $customer->name_last,
            ]
        );
    }
}

A variable with the name of the first parameter of setVar() will be created in the view, ready to be used. The variable can be of any type, from a simple string, integer etc. variable to a more complex structure such as array, collection etc.

<h1>
    Invoices [Customer #]
</h1>

<div class='invoice'>
<?php

    foreach ($invoices as $invoice) {
        echo '<h2>', $invoice->inv_title, '</h2>';
    }

?>
</div>

Template Engines

Template Engines help designers to create views without the use of a complicated syntax. Phalcon includes a powerful and fast templating engine called Volt that help with view development while not sacrificing processing speed.

PHP

The Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Php is the default template engine, if none has been specified.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();

        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        return $view;
    },
    true
);

Volt

You might want to use Volt as your template engine. To set it up you need to register the engine and pass it to the view component.

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Di\DiInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\ViewBaseInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Volt;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$container->setShared(
    'voltService',
    function (ViewBaseInterface $view, DiInterface $container) {
        $volt = new Volt($view, $container);
        $volt->setOptions(
            [
                'always'    => true,
                'extension' => '.php',
                'separator' => '_',
                'stat'      => true,
                'path'      => appPath('storage/cache/volt/'),
                'prefix'    => '-prefix-',
            ]
        );

        return $volt;
    }
);

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();

        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        $view->registerEngines(
            [
                '.volt' => 'voltService',
            ]
        );

        return $view;
    }
);

Mustache/Twig/Smarty

If you like to use Mustache, Twig or Smarty as your template engine, you can visit our incubator repository for examples on how to activate these engines in your application

Custom

When using an external template engine, Phalcon\Mvc\View provides exactly the same view hierarchy and it is still possible to access the API inside these templates. If you want to create your own template engine, you can leverage the API to perform the operations you need.

A template engine adapter is a class that acts as bridge between Phalcon\Mvc\View and the template engine itself. Usually it only needs two methods implemented: __construct() and render(). The first one receives the Phalcon\Mvc\View instance that creates the engine adapter and the DI container used by the application.

The method render() accepts an absolute path to the view file and the view parameters set using $this->view->setVar(). You could read or require it when it’s necessary.

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\DiInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\AbstractEngine;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

class CustomEngine extends AbstractEngine
{
    /**
     * @param View        $view
     * @param DiInterface $container
     */
    public function __construct($view, DiInterface $container)
    {
        parent::__construct($view, $container);
    }

    /**
     * @param string $path
     * @param array $params
     */
    public function render(string $path, $params)
    {
        // Access view
        $view = $this->view;

        // Options
        $options = $this->options;

        // Render the view
        // ...
    }
}

You can now replace the template engine with your own in the view setup part of your code. You can always use more than one engine at a time. To achieve this you need to call Phalcon\Mvc\View::registerEngines() which accepts an array with setup instructions on which engines are registered. The key of each engine is th extension of the files you need to process. You cannot register two engines with the same key.

The order that the template engines are defined with Phalcon\Mvc\View::registerEngines() defines the priority of execution. If Phalcon\Mvc\View finds two views with the same name but different extensions, it will only render the first one.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Engine\Php;

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();

        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        $view->registerEngines(
            [
                '.my-html' => \CustomEngine::class,
            ]
        );

        $view->registerEngines(
            [
                '.my-html' => \CustomEngine::class,
                '.phtml'   => Php::class,
            ]
        );

        return $view;
    },
    true
);

Dependency Injection

Since our view is registered in our Dependency Injection container, the services available in the container are also available in the view. Each service is available by a property with the same name as the defined service.

<script type='text/javascript'>

$.ajax({
    url: '<?php echo $this->url->get('invoices/get'); ?>'
})
.done(function () {
    alert('Done!');
});

</script>

In the example above, we are utilizing the Phalcon\Url component in our javascript code, to correctly set up the URL in our application. The service is available in the view by accessing $this->url.

Stand Alone

You can also use the view as a glue component in your application. You will only need to have the proper setup and then use the view to return processed results back.

Hierarchical Rendering

Once you set up the view with the options that are necessary for your application, you can pass variables to it, as seen above, then call start(), render() and finish(). This will allow the view to compile the data and prepare it for you. You can print the content produced by calling getContent().

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$view = new View();

$view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

//...

$view->setVar('invoices', $invoices);
$view->setVar('isAdmin', true);

$view->start();
$view->render('invoices', 'list');
$view->finish();

echo $view->getContent();

Or using a shorter syntax:

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$view = new View();

echo $view->getRender(
    'invoices',
    'list',
    [
        'invoices' => $invoices,
        'isAdmin'  => true,
    ],
    function ($view) {
        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        $view->setRenderLevel(
            View::LEVEL_LAYOUT
        );
    }
);

Simple Rendering

You can also use the much smaller Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple as a stand alone component. This component is extremely useful when you want to render a template that is not always tied to your application structure. An example is rendering HTML code required by emails.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple;

$view = new Simple();

$view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

echo $view->render('templates/welcome');

echo $view->render(
    'templates/welcome',
    [
        'email'   => $email,
        'content' => $content,
    ]
);

In the above example, we set up the engine and then echo a rendered template on screen (templates/welcome). We can also send parameters to the template by issuing an array as the second parameter. The keys are the names of the variables.

Events

Phalcon\Mvc\View and Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple are able to send events to an Events Manager if it is present. Events are triggered using the type view. If an event returns false it can stop the active operation. The following events are supported:

Event Name Triggered Can stop
afterRender After completing the render process No
afterRenderView After rendering an existing view No
beforeRender Before starting the render process Yes
beforeRenderView Before rendering an existing view Yes
notFoundView When a view was not found No

The following example demonstrates how to attach listeners to this component:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Events\Event;
use Phalcon\Events\Manager;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$container = new FactoryDefault();
$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $manager = new Manager();

        $manager->attach(
            'view',
            function (Event $event, $view) {
                echo $event->getType(), ' - ', 
                     $view->getActiveRenderPath(), PHP_EOL;
            }
        );

        $view = new View();

        $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

        $view->setEventsManager($manager);

        return $view;
    },
    true
);

The following example demonstrates how you can create a plugin that tidies up your HTML produced by the render process using Tidy.

<?php

use Phalcon\Events\Event;

class TidyPlugin
{
    public function afterRender(Event $event, $view)
    {
        $tidyConfig = [
            'clean'          => true,
            'output-xhtml'   => true,
            'show-body-only' => true,
            'wrap'           => 0,
        ];

        $tidy = tidy_parse_string(
            $view->getContent(),
            $tidyConfig,
            'UTF8'
        );

        $tidy->cleanRepair();

        $view->setContent(
            (string) $tidy
        );
    }
}

and we can now attach it to our events manager:

<?php

$manager->attach(
    'view:afterRender',
    new TidyPlugin()
);

Exceptions

: api/phalcon_mvc#mvc-view-engine-volt-exception
api/phalcon_mvc#mvc-view-exception

Any exceptions thrown in the view components (Phalcon\Mvc\View or Phalcon\Mvc\View\Simple) will be of type Phalcon\Mvc\Exception or Phalcon\View\Engine\Volt\Exception if you are using Volt. You can use this exception to selectively catch exceptions thrown only from this component.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View\Exception;

try {

    $view = new View();

    echo $view->getRender(
        'unknown-view',
        'list',
        [
            'invoices' => $invoices,
            'isAdmin'  => true,
        ],
        function ($view) {
            $view->setViewsDir('../app/views/');

            $view->setRenderLevel(
                View::LEVEL_LAYOUT
            );
        }
    );
} catch (Exception $ex) {
    echo $ex->getMessage();
}