Sections

Application


Overview

Phalcon\Mvc\Application is a component that encapsulates all the complex operations behind instantiating every component required to run an MVC application. This is a full stack application integrated with all the additional services required to allow the MVC pattern to operate as desired.

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;

$container   = new FactoryDefault();
$application = new Application($container);

try {
    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

Methods

public function __construct(
    DiInterface $container = null
)

Constructor. Accepts a DI container with relevant services

public function getDefaultModule(): string

Returns the default module name

public function getEventsManager(): ManagerInterface

Returns the internal event manager

public function getModule(
    string $name
): array | object

Gets the module definition registered in the application via module name

public function getModules(): array

Return the modules registered in the application

public function registerModules(
    array $modules, 
    bool $merge = false
): AbstractApplication

Register an array of modules present in the application

$this->registerModules(
    [
        "front" => [
            "className" => \Multi\Front\Module::class,
            "path"      => "../apps/front/Module.php",
        ],
        "back" => [
            "className" => \Multi\Back\Module::class,
            "path"      => "../apps/back/Module.php",
        ],
    ]
);
public function setDefaultModule(
    string $defaultModule
): AbstractApplication

Sets the module name to be used if the router doesn’t return a valid module

public function setEventsManager(
    ManagerInterface $eventsManager
): void

Sets the events manager

public function handle(
    string $uri
): ResponseInterface | bool

Handles a MVC request. Accepts the server URI (usually $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI]`)

public function sendCookiesOnHandleRequest(
    bool $sendCookies
): Application

Enables or disables sending cookies by each request handling

public function sendHeadersOnHandleRequest(
    bool $sendHeaders
): Application

Enables or disables sending headers by each request handling

public function useImplicitView(
    bool $implicitView
): Application

This is enabled by default. The view is implicitly buffering all the output. You can fully disable the view component using this method

Setup

Phalcon\Mvc\Application performs all the work necessary to glue all the necessary components together so that the application can run. There are several ways that you can bootstrap your application. The most common way to bootstrap the application is:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault();
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

// Services
// ...

$application = new Application($container);

try {
    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo 'Exception: ', $e->getMessage();
}

The core of all the work of the controller occurs when handle() is invoked:

<?php

$response = $application->handle(
    $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
);

Manual Bootstrapping

If you do not wish to use Phalcon\Mvc\Application, the code above can be changed as follows:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault();
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$router = $container['router'];

$router->handle(
    $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
);

$view = $container['view'];

$dispatcher = $container['dispatcher'];

$dispatcher->setControllerName(
    $router->getControllerName()
);

$dispatcher->setActionName(
    $router->getActionName()
);

$dispatcher->setParams(
    $router->getParams()
);

// View
$view->start();

// Dispatcher
$dispatcher->dispatch();

// View 
$view->render(
    $dispatcher->getControllerName(),
    $dispatcher->getActionName(),
    $dispatcher->getParams()
);

// View
$view->finish();

$response = $container['response'];

$response->setContent(
    $view->getContent()
);

$response->send();

The following replacement of Phalcon\Mvc\Application does not have the view, making it suitable for REST API applications:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault();
use Phalcon\Http\ResponseInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$router = $container['router'];

$router->handle(
    $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
);

$dispatcher = $container['dispatcher'];

$dispatcher->setControllerName(
    $router->getControllerName()
);

$dispatcher->setActionName(
    $router->getActionName()
);

$dispatcher->setParams(
    $router->getParams()
);

$dispatcher->dispatch();

$response = $dispatcher->getReturnedValue();

if ($response instanceof ResponseInterface) {
    $response->send();
}

Another way that catches exceptions generated in the dispatcher forwarding to other actions consequently is as follows:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault();
use Phalcon\Http\ResponseInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

// Get the 'router' service
$router = $container['router'];

$router->handle(
    $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
);

$dispatcher = $container['dispatcher'];

$dispatcher->setControllerName(
    $router->getControllerName()
);

$dispatcher->setActionName(
    $router->getActionName()
);

$dispatcher->setParams(
    $router->getParams()
);

try {
    $dispatcher->dispatch();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    // 503
    $dispatcher->setControllerName('errors');
    $dispatcher->setActionName('action503');

    $dispatcher->dispatch();
}

$response = $dispatcher->getReturnedValue();

if ($response instanceof ResponseInterface) {
    $response->send();
}

Depending on your application needs, you might want to have full control of what should be instantiated or not, or replace certain components with those of your own to extend the default functionality. The bootstrapping method you choose depends on the needs of your application.

Single - Multi Module

Phalcon\Mvc\Application offers two ways of MVC structures: Single and Multi module.

Single Module

Single module MVC applications consist of one module only. Namespaces can be used but are not necessary. The structure of such application is usually as follows:

single/
    app/
        controllers/
        models/
        views/
    public/
        css/
        img/
        js/

If namespaces are not used, the following bootstrap file could be used:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Loader;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$loader = new Loader();
$loader->registerDirs(
    [
        '../apps/controllers/',
        '../apps/models/',
    ]
);

$loader->register();

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();
        $view->setViewsDir(
            '../apps/views/'
        );

        return $view;
    }
);

$application = new Application($container);

try {
    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

If namespaces are used, the bootstrap changes slightly:

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Loader;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Dispatcher;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$loader = new Loader();
$loader->registerNamespaces(
    [
        'Single\Controllers' => '../apps/controllers/',
        'Single\Models'      => '../apps/models/',
    ]
);

$loader->register();

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$container->set(
    'dispatcher',
    function () {
        $dispatcher = new Dispatcher();
        $dispatcher->setDefaultNamespace(
            'Single\Controllers'
        );

        return $dispatcher;
    }
);

$container->set(
    'view',
    function () {
        $view = new View();
        $view->setViewsDir(
            '../apps/views/'
        );

        return $view;
    }
);

$application = new Application($container);

try {
    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

Multi Module

A multi-module application uses the same document root for more than one module. Modules are groups of components/files that offer functionality but increase maintainability and isolate functionality if necessary. Each module must implement the Phalcon\Mvc\ModuleDefinitionInterface, to ensure proper functionality. A sample directory structure can be seen below:

multiple/
  apps/
    front/
       controllers/
       models/
       views/
       Module.php
    back/
       controllers/
       models/
       views/
       Module.php
  public/
    css/
    img/
    js/

Each subdirectory in apps/ directory have its own MVC structure. A Module.php file is present in each module directory, to configure specific settings of each module, such as autoloaders, custom services etc.

<?php

namespace Multi\Back;

use Phalcon\Loader;
use Phalcon\Di\DiInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Dispatcher;
use Phalcon\Mvc\ModuleDefinitionInterface;
use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

class Module implements ModuleDefinitionInterface
{
    public function registerAutoloaders(
        DiInterface $container = null
    )
    {
        $loader = new Loader();
        $loader->registerNamespaces(
            [
                'Multi\Back\Controllers' => '../apps/back/controllers/',
                'Multi\Back\Models'      => '../apps/back/models/',
            ]
        );

        $loader->register();
    }

    public function registerServices(DiInterface $container)
    {
        // Registering a dispatcher
        $container->set(
            'dispatcher',
            function () {
                $dispatcher = new Dispatcher();
                $dispatcher->setDefaultNamespace(
                    'Multi\Back\Controllers'
                );

                return $dispatcher;
            }
        );

        // Registering the view component
        $container->set(
            'view',
            function () {
                $view = new View();
                $view->setViewsDir(
                    '../apps/back/views/'
                );

                return $view;
            }
        );
    }
}

A slightly modified bootstap file is required for a a multi module MVC architecture

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Router;

$container = new FactoryDefault();

$container->set(
    'router',
    function () {
        $router = new Router();

        $router->setDefaultModule('front');

        $router->add(
            '/login',
            [
                'module'     => 'back',
                'controller' => 'login',
                'action'     => 'index',
            ]
        );

        $router->add(
            '/admin/products/:action',
            [
                'module'     => 'back',
                'controller' => 'products',
                'action'     => 1,
            ]
        );

        $router->add(
            '/products/:action',
            [
                'controller' => 'products',
                'action'     => 1,
            ]
        );

        return $router;
    }
);

$application = new Application($container);

$application->registerModules(
    [
        'front' => [
            'className' => \Multi\Front\Module::class,
            'path'      => '../apps/front/Module.php',
        ],
        'back'  => [
            'className' => \Multi\Back\Module::class,
            'path'      => '../apps/back/Module.php',
        ]
    ]
);

try {
    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (\Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

If you want to keep the module configuration in your bootstrap file, you can use an anonymous function to register the module.

<?php

use Phalcon\Mvc\View;

$view = new View();

// ...

$application->registerModules(
    [
        'front' => function ($container) use ($view) {
            $container->setShared(
                'view',
                function () use ($view) {
                    $view->setViewsDir(
                        '../apps/front/views/'
                    );

                    return $view;
                }
            );
        },
        'back' => function ($container) use ($view) {
            $container->setShared(
                'view',
                function () use ($view) {
                    $view->setViewsDir(
                        '../apps/back/views/'
                    );

                    return $view;
                }
            );
        }
    ]
);

When Phalcon\Mvc\Application has modules registered, it is essential that every matched route returns a valid module. Each registered module has an associated class exposing methods for the module setup.

Module definition classes must implement two methods: - registerAutoloaders() and - registerServices()

These will be called by the Phalcon\Mvc\Application accordingly.

Exceptions

Any exceptions thrown in the Phalcon\Mvc\Application component will be of type Phalcon\Mvc\Application\Exception or Phalcon\Application\Exception. You can use this exception to selectively catch exceptions thrown only from this component.

<?php

use Phalcon\Di\FactoryDefault;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application;
use Phalcon\Mvc\Application\Exception;

try {
    $container   = new FactoryDefault();

    // ...

    $application = new Application($container);
    $application->registerModules(
        [
            'front' => false,
        ]
    );

    $response = $application->handle(
        $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"]
    );

    $response->send();
} catch (Exception $e) {
    echo $e->getMessage();
}

Events

Phalcon\Mvc\Application is able to send events to the EventsManager (if it is present). Events are triggered using the type application. The following events are supported:

Event Name Triggered
boot Executed when the application handles its first request
beforeStartModule Before initialize a module, only when modules are registered
afterStartModule After initialize a module, only when modules are registered
beforeHandleRequest Before execute the dispatch loop
afterHandleRequest After execute the dispatch loop

The following example demonstrates how to attach listeners to this component:

<?php

use Phalcon\Events\Event;
use Phalcon\Events\Manager;

$manager = new Manager();

$application->setEventsManager($manager);

$manager->attach(
    'application',
    function (Event $event, $application) {
        // ...
    }
);

External Resources